Achievement gaps rooted in socioeconomic status exist when children enter kindergarten: Reading and math achievement at the beginning of kindergarten, second through fifth socioeconomic quintiles as compared with lowest quintile


Unadjusted (M1S) 
Low-middle SES 0.269***(0.032)
Middle SES 0.489***(0.034)
High-middle SES 0.739***(0.037)
High SES 0.996***(0.039)


Unadjusted (M1S) 
Low-middle SES 0.240***(0.032)
Middle SES 0.504***(0.035)
High-middle SES 0.710***(0.036)
High SES 0.957***(0.039)

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Bars show the unadjusted standard deviation score for each socioeconomic group, relative to low-SES children.

Source: Adapted from Figure D1 in Emma Garcia, Inequalities at the Starting Gate: Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills Gaps Between 2010–2011 Kindergarten Classmates, Economic Policy Institute Report, June 17, 2015

EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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