Correlations for repeat violations by agricultural employers that were detected by the Wage and Hour Division, fiscal years 2005–2019


Repeat investigation


Repeat investigation


Repeat investigation

Civil money penalties assessed (in $1000s) 0.00014 0.00016 0.00019
(0.00017) (0.00018) (0.00018)
N 6,662 6,662 6,662
Year fixed effects No Yes Yes
State fixed effects No No Yes

Note: Dollar amounts used in this analysis are adjusted for inflation to constant 2019 dollars using the CPI-U-RS. Heteroskedastic-robust standard errors in parentheses. * p < .1, ** p < .05, *** p < .01. P-values greater than .1 indicate that we are unable to reject the null hypothesis that the statistical association between the explanatory variables and the dependent variable is equal to zero at a 90% level of confidence. N represents the number of employers in the top 10 violating states who were investigated at least once by the Wage and Hour Division and were also found to be in violation of at least one employment law.

Source: Authors' analysis of U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Compliance Action Data  (U.S. DOL-WHD 2020f).

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