Probability that federal employment law violations will be detected during an investigation by the Wage and Hour Division in California, by county, fiscal years 2005–2019

California county Probability of finding a violation
Fresno 0.835***
Imperial 0.614***
Kern 0.766***
Monterey 0.741***
Riverside 0.623***
San Diego 0.705***
San Joaquin 0.635***
Santa Barbara 0.788***
Tulare 0.899***
Ventura 0.581***
Number of violations 1,222

Note: Heteroskedastic-robust are standard errors in parentheses. * p < .1, ** p < .05, *** p < .01. A p-value of less than .01 indicates that there is less than a 1% chance of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis that a coefficient is equal to zero. In other words, if p < .01, it is highly unlikely that the true share of employers within a county that are guilty of at least one violation is equal to zero. Non-FLC crop support services include cotton ginning, soil preparation, crop harvesting by machine, other post-harvest activities, and farm management services.

Source: Authors' analysis of U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Compliance Action Data  (U.S. DOL-WHD 2020f).

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