Probability that federal employment law violations will be detected during an investigation by the Wage and Hour Division in California, by commodity or type of employment, fiscal year 2005–2019

Commodity or type of employment Probability of finding a violation
Vegetable and melon farming 0.641***
Fruit and tree nut farming 0.719***
Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production 0.533***
Other crops 0.644***
Animal production and aquaculture 0.545***
Support activities for crop production (non-FLC) 0.718***
Farm Labor Contractors 0.845***
Number of violations 2,132

Note: Heteroskedastic-robust are standard errors in parentheses. * p < .1, ** p < .05, *** p < .01. A p-value of less than .01 indicates that there is less than a 1% chance of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis that a coefficient is equal to zero. In other words, if p < .01, it is highly unlikely that the true share of employers within a North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code that are guilty of at least one violation is equal to zero. Commodity and type of employment reflect corresponding NAICS codes associated with violations, or a combination of codes listed here: Vegetables and melon farming (1112); Fruit, tree, and nut farming (1113); Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production (1114); Animal production and aquaculture (112); Support activities for crop production (non-FLC) (1151 excluding 115115); and Other crops (1119, 1131, 11199, 111199, 111940, 111991, 111998). Non-FLC crop support services include cotton ginning, soil preparation, crop harvesting by machine, other post-harvest activities, and farm management services.

Source: Authors' analysis of U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Compliance Action Data  (U.S. DOL-WHD 2020f).

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