Summary of investigations that detected violations but where no back wages or civil money penalties were owed

Type of violation without BWs/CMPs owed Number of investigations % of all investigations % of investigations without BWs/CMPs owed
Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act 2966 15% 64%
Fair Labor Standards Act 1644 9% 35%
H-2A 700 4% 15%
Total 4631 24% 100%

Note: BW represents back wages and CMP represents civil money penalties. Some investigations detected violations of multiple employment laws, thus percentages in the last column add up to more than 100%. The total in the last row of the table includes all investigations that found at least one violation but resulted in zero back wages or civil money penalties being owed.

Source: Authors' analysis of U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Compliance Action Data  (U.S. DOL-WHD 2020f).

View the underlying data on