Ratio of California county share of federal employment law violations detected by the Wage and Hour Division among farm labor contractors to the share of agricultural employment in the county, fiscal years 2005–2019
Note: The figure depicts the ratio of each county's share of farm labor violations that were detected among FLCs between fiscal years 2005 and 2019 relative to each county's share of FLC employment in 2018. Values less than 1 indicate that a county has a smaller share of violations compared to its share of employment. Larger values indicate that the FLCs who were investigated within a county were generally less compliant with employment laws. Mountainous counties in the north and east of California have few or no FLCs.
Source: Authors' analysis of U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Compliance Action Data (U.S. DOL-WHD 2020f) and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages data for North American Industry Classification System code 11, agriculture, in 2018 (BLS-QCEW 2020a).