Employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, by gender, 1989–2023

Date Employment-to-population ratio, men Employment-to-population ratio, women
Jan-1989 89.9 70.5
Feb-1989 89.8 70.4
Mar-1989 89.9 70.2
Apr-1989 89.7 70.3
May-1989 89.8 70.1
Jun-1989 90 70.1
Jul-1989 89.9 70
Aug-1989 90 70.2
Sep-1989 89.7 70.7
Oct-1989 89.8 70.5
Nov-1989 89.9 70.8
Dec-1989 90 70.7
Jan-1990 89.9 70.9
Feb-1990 90.1 70.8
Mar-1990 89.8 70.8
Apr-1990 89.4 70.7
May-1990 89.3 70.8
Jun-1990 89.3 70.6
Jul-1990 89 70.6
Aug-1990 88.9 70.5
Sep-1990 88.7 70.5
Oct-1990 88.6 70.4
Nov-1990 88.5 70.2
Dec-1990 88.1 70.1
Jan-1991 88.2 69.9
Feb-1991 88 70.1
Mar-1991 87.7 70
Apr-1991 87.9 70.3
May-1991 87.4 70.1
Jun-1991 87.5 70.2
Jul-1991 87.5 70.1
Aug-1991 87.4 70
Sep-1991 87.5 70.1
Oct-1991 87.2 70
Nov-1991 87.1 70
Dec-1991 86.9 69.9 
Jan-1992 86.9 70.1
Feb-1992 86.6  70
Mar-1992 86.8 70
Apr-1992 86.9 70.2
May-1992 86.8 70.3
Jun-1992 86.9 70.3
Jul-1992 86.9 70.2
Aug-1992 86.9 70.2
Sep-1992 86.8 70.1
Oct-1992 86.7 70
Nov-1992 86.6 70.1
Dec-1992 86.7 69.9
Jan-1993 86.8 69.9
Feb-1993 86.7 69.9
Mar-1993 86.5 70.3
Apr-1993 86.8 69.9
May-1993 87 70.2
Jun-1993 87.1 70.4
Jul-1993 87.1 70.4
Aug-1993 87.2 70.6
Sep-1993 87.1 70.5
Oct-1993 87.1 70.5
Nov-1993 87.5 70.7
Dec-1993 87.4 71
Jan-1994 87.1 71
Feb-1994 86.8 71.3
Mar-1994 87 71.1
Apr-1994 87.1 71.2
May-1994 87.3 71.3
Jun-1994 87 70.9
Jul-1994 87 71.4
Aug-1994 87 71.7
Sep-1994 87.4 72.1
Oct-1994 87.5 71.9
Nov-1994 87.9 72
Dec-1994 88 71.8
Jan-1995 87.9 71.8
Feb-1995 88.1 72.2
Mar-1995 87.9 72.1
Apr-1995 87.7 72.2
May-1995 87.6 72.1
Jun-1995 87.6 71.7
Jul-1995 87.5 72.2
Aug-1995 87.4 72.1
Sep-1995 87.6 72.3
Oct-1995 87.6 72.3
Nov-1995 87.2 72.6
Dec-1995 87.2 72.4
Jan-1996 87.5 72.4
Feb-1996 87.7 72.4
Mar-1996 87.5 72.6
Apr-1996 87.5 72.6
May-1996 87.6 72.5
Jun-1996 87.8 72.7
Jul-1996 88.1 72.9
Aug-1996 88.4 73
Sep-1996 88.1 73
Oct-1996 88.3 73.1
Nov-1996 88.2 73
Dec-1996 88.3 73
Jan-1997 88.2 73.2
Feb-1997 88.2 72.9
Mar-1997 88.2 73.3
Apr-1997 88.1 73.5
May-1997 88.1 73.3
Jun-1997 88.4 73.6
Jul-1997 88.6 73.9
Aug-1997 88.7 74.1
Sep-1997 88.6 73.9
Oct-1997 88.6 73.8
Nov-1997 88.7 73.6
Dec-1997 88.6 73.6
Jan-1998 88.8 73.4
Feb-1998 88.9 73.4
Mar-1998 88.8 73.5
Apr-1998 88.9 73.5
May-1998 88.8 73.4
Jun-1998 88.7 73.6
Jul-1998 88.7 73.8
Aug-1998 88.8 73.9
Sep-1998 88.8 74
Oct-1998 88.8 73.7
Nov-1998 89.1 73.7
Dec-1998 88.9 74
Jan-1999 89.7 74.3
Feb-1999 89.2 74.1
Mar-1999 89.2 73.8
Apr-1999 89.1 73.8
May-1999 88.9 74.1
Jun-1999 88.8 74.2
Jul-1999 88.8 73.8
Aug-1999 88.7 74.1
Sep-1999 88.6 74.3
Oct-1999 88.7 74.5
Nov-1999 89 74.5
Dec-1999 89 74.3
Jan-2000 89.5 74.4
Feb-2000 89.4 74.5
Mar-2000 89.3 74.5
Apr-2000 89.2 74.9
May-2000 89 74.4
Jun-2000 89.1 74.2
Jul-2000 88.9 73.9
Aug-2000 88.9 73.6
Sep-2000 88.6 73.9
Oct-2000 88.6 73.9
Nov-2000 88.8 74.1
Dec-2000 88.9 74.1
Jan-2001 88.9  74.2 
Feb-2001 88.8 74.2
Mar-2001 88.5 74.3
Apr-2001 88.3 73.7
May-2001 88.3 73.7
Jun-2001 88.1 73.4
Jul-2001 87.9 73.4
Aug-2001 87.6 73.2
Sep-2001 87.6 73.1
Oct-2001 87.4 72.7
Nov-2001 87 72.6
Dec-2001 87.1 72.6
Jan-2002 86.8 72.5
Feb-2002 87.1 72.7
Mar-2002 87 72.5
Apr-2002 86.8 72.5
May-2002 86.9 72.2
Jun-2002 86.5  72.1
Jul-2002 86.5 71.9 
Aug-2002 86.8 72.1
Sep-2002 86.8 72.2
Oct-2002 86.6 72.1
Nov-2002 85.9 71.9
Dec-2002 86 72.2
Jan-2003 85.6 72.4
Feb-2003 85.9 72.1
Mar-2003 85.8 72.4
Apr-2003 85.9 72.4
May-2003 85.7 72.2
Jun-2003 85.8 72.3
Jul-2003 85.8 71.9
Aug-2003 85.7 72
Sep-2003 85.9 71.6 
Oct-2003 85.9 71.6
Nov-2003 86 71.7
Dec-2003 86.4 71.4
Jan-2004 86.4 71.6
Feb-2004 86.2 71.7
Mar-2004 86 71.8
Apr-2004 86.2 71.8
May-2004 86.3 71.9
Jun-2004 86.5 71.9
Jul-2004 86.7 71.9
Aug-2004 86.5 71.8
Sep-2004 86.4 71.9
Oct-2004 86.3 71.9
Nov-2004 86.5 72
Dec-2004 86.2 71.8
Jan-2005 86.5 72
Feb-2005 86.7 71.9
Mar-2005 86.8 71.8
Apr-2005 87 72
May-2005 87.1 72.1
Jun-2005 87 71.7
Jul-2005 87 71.9
Aug-2005 87.4 72.1
Sep-2005 87 72.1
Oct-2005 87 71.9
Nov-2005 86.8 71.9
Dec-2005 86.7 72.1
Jan-2006 87.2 72.2
Feb-2006 87.1 72.4
Mar-2006 87.4 72.3
Apr-2006 87.2 72.1
May-2006 87.2 72.3
Jun-2006 87.2 72.5
Jul-2006 87.1 72.7
Aug-2006 87.1 72.6
Sep-2006 87.4 72.5
Oct-2006 87.4 72.9
Nov-2006 87.5 72.7
Dec-2006 87.7 72.7
Jan-2007 88 72.8
Feb-2007 87.9 72.6
Mar-2007 88 72.7
Apr-2007 87.9 72.2
May-2007 87.7 72.5
Jun-2007 87.5 72.5
Jul-2007 87.3 72.4
Aug-2007 87.2 72.6
Sep-2007 87.1 72.5
Oct-2007 86.9 72.4
Nov-2007 87.2 72.5
Dec-2007 87.2 72.4
Jan-2008 87.4 72.7
Feb-2008 87.4 72.6
Mar-2008 87.1 72.6
Apr-2008 86.7 72.7
May-2008 86.5 72.6
Jun-2008 86.3 72.6
Jul-2008 86.2 72.4
Aug-2008 85.8 72.1
Sep-2008 85.4 72.3
Oct-2008 85.2 71.9
Nov-2008 84.7 71.7
Dec-2008 83.7 71.6
Jan-2009 83.1 71.1
Feb-2009 82.5 71
Mar-2009 82 70.6
Apr-2009 81.8 70.7
May-2009 81.5 70.4
Jun-2009 81.5 70.4
Jul-2009 81.3 70.4
Aug-2009 81.2 70
Sep-2009 80.8 69.5
Oct-2009 80.8 69.4
Nov-2009 80.7 69.8
Dec-2009 80.4 69.2
Jan-2010 80.7 69.8
Feb-2010 80.6 69.7
Mar-2010 80.8 69.5
Apr-2010 81.3 69.6
May-2010 81.1 69.3
Jun-2010 81.1 69.5
Jul-2010 81.1 69.1
Aug-2010 81.2 69 
Sep-2010 81.2 69.1
Oct-2010 81.1 69
Nov-2010 80.7 69.1
Dec-2010 80.8 69.4
Jan-2011 81.2 69.3
Feb-2011 81.4 69
Mar-2011 81.4 69.3
Apr-2011 81.2 69.1
May-2011 81.6 68.9
Jun-2011 81.3 68.8 
Jul-2011 81.1 69
Aug-2011 81.4 68.9
Sep-2011 81.3 68.7
Oct-2011 81.1 68.9
Nov-2011 81.9 68.8
Dec-2011 82.1 68.9
Jan-2012 82.5 68.9
Feb-2012 82.4 68.9
Mar-2012 82.5 69.2
Apr-2012 82.5 69.1
May-2012 82.5 69.2
Jun-2012 82.6 69
Jul-2012 82.4 69.1
Aug-2012 82.4 69.2
Sep-2012 82.7 69.5
Oct-2012 82.9 69.6
Nov-2012 82.5 69.4
Dec-2012 82.8 69.4
Jan-2013 82.6 68.9
Feb-2013 82.8 69
Mar-2013 82.8 69
Apr-2013 82.8 69.1
May-2013 83 69.3
Jun-2013 82.9 69.2
Jul-2013 82.9 69.4
Aug-2013 82.6 69.6
Sep-2013 82.6 69.6
Oct-2013 82.4 69
Nov-2013 83 69.3
Dec-2013 83 69.5
Jan-2014 83.2 69.8
Feb-2014 83 70.1
Mar-2014 83.5 69.8
Apr-2014 83.2 69.9
May-2014 83.3 69.8
Jun-2014 83.8 70.2
Jul-2014 83.8 69.8
Aug-2014 83.9 70.1
Sep-2014 84.1 69.8
Oct-2014 84 70.1
Nov-2014 83.9 70.3
Dec-2014 84.2 70.3
Jan-2015 84.3 70.2
Feb-2015 84.3 70.3
Mar-2015 84.5 70
Apr-2015 84.4 70.2
May-2015 84.3 70.4
Jun-2015 84.5 70.5
Jul-2015 84.4 70.1
Aug-2015 84.6 70.2
Sep-2015 84.6 70.2
Oct-2015 84.4 70.3
Nov-2015 84.4 70.7
Dec-2015 84.5 70.6
Jan-2016 84.9 70.7
Feb-2016 84.9 70.8
Mar-2016 85.2 70.9
Apr-2016 84.8 70.9
May-2016 84.9 71
Jun-2016 85.1 71
Jul-2016 84.9 71.4
Aug-2016 84.9 71.1
Sep-2016 84.9 71.4
Oct-2016 85 71.5
Nov-2016 85 71.4
Dec-2016 85 71.4
Jan-2017 85.3 71.3
Feb-2017 85.1 71.6
Mar-2017 85.2 72
Apr-2017 85.4 72
May-2017 85.3 71.9
Jun-2017 85.3 72.2
Jul-2017 85.3 72.4
Aug-2017 85 72.1
Sep-2017 85.6 72.5
Oct-2017 85.6 72.2
Nov-2017 85.6 72.5
Dec-2017 86 72.2
Jan-2018 85.9 72.1
Feb-2018 86.4 72.3
Mar-2018 86.2 72.4
Apr-2018 86.3 72.2
May-2018 86.3 72.5
Jun-2018 86.1 72.8
Jul-2018 86.3 73.1
Aug-2018 86 72.9
Sep-2018 85.9 73.1
Oct-2018 86.2 73.4
Nov-2018 86.3 73.1
Dec-2018 86 73.3
Jan-2019 86.4 73.3
Feb-2019 86.5 73.3
Mar-2019 86.7 73.1
Apr-2019 86.4 73.2
May-2019 86.3 73.3
Jun-2019 86.1 73.6
Jul-2019 86.2 73.2
Aug-2019 86.3 74
Sep-2019 86.4 74.2
Oct-2019 86.5 74.4
Nov-2019 86.7 74.1
Dec-2019 86.5 74.5
Jan-2020 86.6 74.6
Feb-2020 86.4 74.5
Mar-2020 85.8 73.3
Apr-2020 76 63.4
May-2020 77.9 64.9
Jun-2020 79.6 67.7
Jul-2020 79.9 68.1
Aug-2020 81.6 69.3
Sep-2020 81.5 68.9
Oct-2020 82.1 70.1
Nov-2020 81.9 70.2
Dec-2020 82.3 70.4
Jan-2021 82.5 70.4
Feb-2021 82.6 70.6
Mar-2021 82.8 71
Apr-2021 82.9 71.1
May-2021 82.9 71.3
Jun-2021 83.2 71.4
Jul-2021 83.8 71.9
Aug-2021 84 72
Sep-2021 84.1 72
Oct-2021 84.5 72.2
Nov-2021 84.8 72.9
Dec-2021 85.0 73.2
Jan-2022 85.1 73.3
Feb-2022 85.9 73.2
Mar-2022 86.1 74.1
Apr-2022 86.0 73.9
May-2022 86 74.1
Jun-2022 85.8 73.9
Jul-2022 85.9 74.2
Aug-2022 85.9 74.8
Sep-2022 86.2 74.4
Oct-2022 85.7 74
Nov-2022 85.7 73.8
Dec-2022 86.1 74.1
Jan-2023 85.8 74.7

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data.

View the underlying data on epi.org.