Adverse Effect Wage Rates for H-2A farmworkers, total change and percentage change from 2013 to 2022, adjusted to constant 2022 dollars, and ranked by number of workers

State Number of workers Share of total H-2A workers 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Total real change Real % change total Real % change annualized
Florida 50,644 15.0% 12.58 12.73 12.62 13.09 13.32 13.20 12.91 13.27 13.06 12.41 -0.17 -1.3% -0.1%
Georgia 37,720 11.1% 12.34 12.41 12.39 12.95 12.72 12.80 12.78 13.27 12.77 11.99 -0.35 -2.8% -0.3%
California 33,575 9.9% 13.55 13.66 14.04 14.54 15.05 15.41 15.98 16.74 17.35 17.51 3.96 29.2% 2.6%
Washington 29,783 8.8% 15.14 14.73 15.39 15.52 16.02 16.51 17.26 17.94 17.66 17.41 2.27 15.0% 1.4%
North Carolina 25,191 7.4% 12.21 12.25 12.79 13.11 13.50 13.40 14.07 14.36 14.21 14.16 1.95 15.9% 1.5%
Louisiana 12,841 3.8% 11.99 12.25 12.61 13.07 12.43 12.54 13.01 13.41 12.84 12.45 0.46 3.9% 0.4%
Michigan 12,382 3.7% 14.26 14.26 14.32 14.70 15.27 15.27 15.55 16.32 15.91 15.37 1.11 7.8% 0.8%
Arizona 12,141 3.6% 12.28 12.37 13.06 13.70 13.11 12.23 13.78 14.63 14.78 14.79 2.51 20.5% 1.9%
New York 9,368 2.8% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
Texas 8,802 2.6% 12.84 13.48 12.82 13.64 13.88 13.88 14.04 14.36 14.08 13.88 1.04 8.1% 0.8%
Kentucky 7,417 2.2% 12.36 12.53 12.74 13.27 13.08 13.08 13.35 14.05 14.01 13.89 1.53 12.3% 1.2%
South Carolina 7,292 2.2% 12.34 12.41 12.39 12.95 12.72 12.80 12.78 13.27 12.77 11.99 -0.35 -2.8% -0.3%
Mississippi 6,932 2.0% 11.99 12.25 12.61 13.07 12.43 12.54 13.01 13.41 12.84 12.45 0.46 3.9% 0.4%
Idaho 5,696 1.7% 12.60 13.27 13.80 14.37 13.96 13.60 15.48 15.43 15.73 14.68 2.08 16.5% 1.5%
Tennessee 5,602 1.7% 12.36 12.53 12.74 13.27 13.08 13.08 13.35 14.05 14.01 13.89 1.53 12.3% 1.2%
Virginia 5,577 1.6% 12.21 12.25 12.79 13.11 13.50 13.40 14.07 14.36 14.21 14.16 1.95 15.9% 1.5%
Arkansas 5,364 1.6% 11.99 12.25 12.61 13.07 12.43 12.54 13.01 13.41 12.84 12.45 0.46 3.9% 0.4%
Iowa 4,553 1.3% 14.40 15.17 15.63 14.88 15.71 15.69 15.32 16.52 16.61 16.19 1.79 12.5% 1.2%
Indiana 4,249 1.3% 14.81 14.43 14.38 14.76 15.58 15.12 15.23 16.45 16.55 15.89 1.08 7.3% 0.7%
Ohio 3,767 1.1% 14.81 14.43 14.38 14.76 15.58 15.12 15.23 16.45 16.55 15.89 1.08 7.3% 0.7%
Oregon 3,679 1.1% 15.14 14.73 15.39 15.52 16.02 16.51 17.26 17.94 17.66 17.41 2.27 15.0% 1.4%
Colorado 3,528 1.0% 12.72 13.51 14.09 13.78 13.17 12.50 15.08 16.16 16.02 15.58 2.86 22.5% 2.1%
Illinois 3,418 1.0% 14.81 14.43 14.38 14.76 15.58 15.12 15.23 16.45 16.55 15.89 1.08 7.3% 0.7%
Minnesota 3,226 1.0% 14.26 14.26 14.32 14.70 15.27 15.27 15.55 16.32 15.91 15.37 1.11 7.8% 0.8%
Nevada 3,013 0.9% 12.72 13.51 14.09 13.78 13.17 12.50 15.08 16.16 16.02 15.58 2.86 22.5% 2.1%
Nebraska 2,778 0.8% 15.56 16.64 16.84 16.88 16.52 15.95 16.51 16.99 17.18 16.47 0.91 5.9% 0.6%
North Dakota 2,605 0.8% 15.56 16.64 16.84 16.88 16.52 15.95 16.51 16.99 17.18 16.47 0.91 5.9% 0.6%
Pennsylvania 2,560 0.8% 13.71 13.73 13.99 14.26 14.60 14.09 15.10 15.12 15.19 15.54 1.83 13.3% 1.3%
New Jersey 2,512 0.7% 13.71 13.73 13.99 14.26 14.60 14.09 15.10 15.12 15.19 15.54 1.83 13.3% 1.3%
South Dakota 2,145 0.6% 15.56 16.64 16.84 16.88 16.52 15.95 16.51 16.99 17.18 16.47 0.91 5.9% 0.6%
Wisconsin 2,132 0.6% 14.26 14.26 14.32 14.70 15.27 15.27 15.55 16.32 15.91 15.37 1.11 7.8% 0.8%
Alabama 1,940 0.6% 12.34 12.41 12.39 12.95 12.72 12.80 12.78 13.27 12.77 11.99 -0.35 -2.8% -0.3%
Missouri 1,900 0.6% 14.40 15.17 15.63 14.88 15.71 15.69 15.32 16.52 16.61 16.19 1.79 12.5% 1.2%
Kansas 1,786 0.5% 15.56 16.64 16.84 16.88 16.52 15.95 16.51 16.99 17.18 16.47 0.91 5.9% 0.6%
New Mexico 1,634 0.5% 12.28 12.37 13.06 13.70 13.11 12.23 13.78 14.63 14.78 14.79 2.51 20.5% 1.9%
Utah 1,614 0.5% 12.72 13.51 14.09 13.78 13.17 12.50 15.08 16.16 16.02 15.58 2.86 22.5% 2.1%
Connecticut 1,287 0.4% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
Oklahoma 1,276 0.4% 12.84 13.48 12.82 13.64 13.88 13.88 14.04 14.36 14.08 13.88 1.04 8.1% 0.8%
Maryland 1,262 0.4% 13.71 13.73 13.99 14.26 14.60 14.09 15.10 15.12 15.19 15.54 1.83 13.3% 1.3%
Montana 1,244 0.4% 12.60 13.27 13.80 14.37 13.96 13.60 15.48 15.43 15.73 14.68 2.08 16.5% 1.5%
Maine 1,152 0.3% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
Delaware 721 0.2% 13.71 13.73 13.99 14.26 14.60 14.09 15.10 15.12 15.19 15.54 1.83 13.3% 1.3%
Wyoming 562 0.2% 12.60 13.27 13.80 14.37 13.96 13.60 15.48 15.43 15.73 14.68 2.08 16.5% 1.5%
Massachusetts 497 0.1% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
Vermont 496 0.1% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
New Hampshire 268 0.1% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
West Virginia 268 0.1% 12.36 12.53 12.74 13.27 13.08 13.08 13.35 14.05 14.01 13.89 1.53 12.3% 1.2%
Hawaii 212 0.1% 16.05 16.02 16.08 15.46 15.74 16.80 16.91 16.88 16.82 16.54 0.49 3.1% 0.3%
Rhode Island 4 0.0% 13.77 13.92 13.95 14.36 14.83 15.00 15.21 16.19 16.20 15.66 1.89 13.8% 1.3%
Average 1.51 11.23% 1.05%
Weighted average 1.33 9.85% 0.91%

Notes: All values have been adjusted to constant 2022 dollars using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U).

Source: Author’s analysis of Adverse Effect Wage Rates for various years from the Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Number of workers is derived from the number of approved petitions for United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, H-2A Employer Data Hub, fiscal year 2021 data file.

View the underlying data on epi.org.