Change in net holdings of foreign assets of currency manipulators, by type, 2008–2014

Year Foreign exchange reserves Sovereign wealth funds
2008 $591 $629
2009 $732 -$83
2010 $883 $273
2011 $783 $300
2012 $610 $252
2013 $658 $642
2014 -$128 $673

Source: Author's analysis of data from the International Monetary Fund, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute, and Central Bank of the Republic of China

View the underlying data on epi.org.