Care workers are disproportionately immigrant women: Breakdown of all workers, home health care workers, and child care workers by gender and citizenship status

Men U.S.-born women Naturalized women Noncitizen women
All workers 53.1% 39.6% 4.0% 3.3%
Home health care workers 11.4% 62.1% 13.9% 12.6%
Child care workers 6.0% 73.3% 9.8% 10.9%

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.18 (2021),

View the underlying data on