Change in odds of employment caused by state of residence for American Indians and whites (relative to states without tribal lands), ages 25–54, 2009–2011

 State American Indian* White** Difference (American Indian – white)
Alabama -10% -10% 0
Alaska 0% 0% 0
Arizona -29% -12% -17
California -24% -24% 0
Colorado 0% 0% 0
Connecticut 6% 6% 0
Florida -12% -12% 0
Idaho -5% -5% 0
Illinois*** 0% 0% 0
Iowa 0% 59% -59
Kansas 30% 30% 0
Louisiana 3% 3% 0
Maine 0% 0% 0
Massachusetts 0% 0% 0
Michigan -16% -16% 0
Minnesota 0% 42% -42
Mississippi 50% -6% 56
Montana -11% 18% -29
Nebraska 64% 64% 0
Nevada -14% -14% 0
New Mexico -10% -10% 0
New York 0% 0% 0
North Carolina -9% -9% 0
North Dakota -13% 90% -103
Oklahoma 25% 7% 18
Oregon 2% -19% 20
Rhode Island 13% 13% 0
South Carolina -9% -9% 0
South Dakota -24% 102% -126
Texas 4% 4% 0
Utah -32% -15% -17
Washington -13% -13% 0
Wisconsin 8% 38% -30
Wyoming 33% 33% 0

* Change in American Indians' odds of employment in a particular state relative to employment odds of demographically similar American Indians in states without tribal lands
** Change in whites' odds of employment in a particular state relative to employment odds of demographically similar whites in states without tribal lands
*** Illinois does not have tribal lands; however, because many American Indians were relocated to Chicago in the mid-20th century, we include it in this analysis.

Note: Odds control for gender, age, marital status, number of children, veteran status, disability, facility with English, educational attainment, urbanicity, and proximity to a reservation. All states where there is no statistically significant difference between the state's effect on American Indian employment odds and white employment odds have a difference of 0 percentage points. These data include American Indian multiracials and Hispanics of both races, but exclude the foreign born.

Source: Author's analysis of American Community Survey data from Ruggles et al. (2013)

View the underlying data on epi.org.