Characteristics of male heads of households on control variables by immigrant legal status
|All respondents||Unauthorized workers||Temporary workers||Legal permanent residents|
|Years of education||6.5||3.8||6.7||3.9||7.5a,b||3.4||5.8c||3.8|
|Age at most recent U.S. trip||33.9||10.8||32.3||10.6||35.2a,b||10.5||38.0c||11.4|
|No. of prior U.S. trips||4.2||5.4||2.4||3||2.9a,b||2.7||9.0c||7.8|
|Duration of U.S. trip (in months)||25.2||32.5||26.2||54.2||17.7a,b||27.2||23.8||35.1|
|% responding “yes”||StdD||% responding “yes”||StdD||% responding “yes”||StdD||% responding “yes”||StdD|
|Close family w/ U.S. exp.||55.4||—||48.2||—||30.0a,b||—||77.9c||—|
|Extended family w/ U.S. exp.||78.9||—||75.3||—||51.4a,b||—||92.7c|
|Close family in U.S.||54.8||—||51.8||—||37.9a,b||—||65.0c|
|Extended family in U.S.||75.4||—||72.3||—||51.4a,b||—||87.2c|
|Joined U.S. social org(s)||15.9||—||14.5||—||20||—||18.7c||—|
|U.S. trip controls|
|Interviewed in the U.S.||14.5||—||10.6||—||10.0b||—||25.1c||—|
|Worked in a border state (1=yes)||59.6||—||68.1||—||22.1a,b||—||69.7c||—|
|Unskilled manual (1=yes)||24.3||—||20.5||—||9.3a,b||—||24.0c||—|
a Temporary worker versus unauthorized worker difference is significant using two-tailed t-tests (p<.05).
b Temporary worker versus legal permanent resident difference is significant using two-tailed t-tests (p<.05).
c Legal permanent resident versus unauthorized worker difference is significant using two-tailed t-tests (p<.05).
Source: Mexican Migration Project 143; sample was limited to non-U.S. citizen, male heads of households who worked during their most recent trip to the United States when above the age of 16, from 1987 to 2011.