Share of workers affected by minimum wage increase and wage impacts by select demographic characteristics

 

Group Wage-earning workforce  Group’s share of workforce Count directly affected   Total affected directly or indirectly  Share affected directly or indirectly Share of affected workers Total change in annual wagebill   Average change in annual wages (full-time worker) Average change in hourly wages 
All workers 319,000  100.0% 16,000   30,800  9.7% 100.0% $51,141,000   $1,659   $1.02 
Gender
Men 171,700  53.8% 7,300   13,800  8.1% 44.9% $22,746,000   $1,643   $0.99 
Women 147,400  46.2% 8,700   17,000  11.5% 55.1% $28,395,000   $1,672   $1.04 
Teenager category
Teenager 11,300  3.6% 4,900   6,700  58.7% 21.6% $12,652,000   $1,900   $1.43 
Age 20 or older 307,700  96.4% 11,100   24,200  7.9% 78.4% $38,489,000   $1,593   $0.90 
Age category
Age 16 to 24 42,500  13.3% 10,500   16,500  38.9% 53.6% $30,263,000   $1,833   $1.19 
Age 25 to 39 114,200  35.8% 4,000   9,700  8.5% 31.3% $14,965,000   $1,550   $0.85 
Age 40 to 54 93,200  29.2% 700   2,200  2.4% 7.3% $2,621,000   $1,167   $0.72 
Age 55 or older 69,200  21.7% 800   2,400  3.5% 7.8% $3,291,000   $1,364   $0.72 
Race / ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 201,300  63.1% 6,600   14,100  7.0% 45.6% $22,834,000   $1,624   $1.03 
Black, non-Hispanic 11,400  3.6% 1,700  15.2% 5.6%
Hispanic, any race 23,800  7.4% 1,800   4,100  17.3% 13.3%
AAPI 29,200  9.2% 2,100   3,900  13.5% 12.8% $6,385,000   $1,621   $0.87 
AIAN and multiracial 53,400  16.7% 4,600   7,000  13.1% 22.7% $12,596,000   $1,800   $1.13 
Person of color
Not person of color 201,300  63.1% 6,600   14,100  7.0% 45.6% $22,834,000   $1,624   $1.03 
Person of color 117,800  36.9% 9,400   16,800  14.2% 54.4% $28,307,000   $1,688   $1.01 
Family status
Married parent 76,600  24.0% 1,300   2,700  3.6% 8.8% $3,576,000   $1,312   $0.87 
Single parent 28,600  9.0% 1,200   3,200  11.0% 10.3% $5,423,000   $1,715   $0.94 
Married, no children 84,900  26.6% 1,100   2,800  3.3% 9.0% $3,593,000   $1,300   $0.80 
Unmarried, no children 128,900  40.4% 12,500   22,200  17.2% 71.9% $38,550,000   $1,738   $1.07 
Usual weekly work hours category
Part time (<20 hours per week) 15,000  4.7% 2,500   4,100  27.1% 13.2% $3,199,000   $787   $1.17 
Mid time (20-34 hours) 46,200  14.5% 7,700   12,800  27.8% 41.6% $19,891,000   $1,550   $1.14 
Full time (35+ hours) 257,800  80.8% 5,800   13,900  5.4% 45.2% $28,051,000   $2,015   $0.86 
Educational attainment
Less than high school 20,200  6.3% 5,300   7,200  35.5% 23.3% $14,384,000   $2,002   $1.32 
High school 86,400  27.1% 5,900   11,900  13.7% 38.5% $20,534,000   $1,728   $0.99 
Some college, no degree 91,200  28.6% 3,700   8,900  9.8% 28.9% $11,667,000   $1,310   $0.80 
Associate degree 27,300  8.6% 1,800  6.7% 5.9%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 93,900  29.4% 1,000  1.1% 3.4%
Major industry
Agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining 15,100  4.7% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Construction 20,100  6.3%
Manufacturing 14,200  4.5% 800   1,400  9.8% 4.5% $3,216,000   $2,297   $0.80 
Wholesale trade 6,900  2.2%
Retail trade 35,000  11.0% 4,300   6,900  19.7% 22.3% $12,583,000   $1,828   $1.09 
Transportation, warehousing, utilities 27,000  8.5% 1,000  3.7% 3.3%
Information 7,100  2.2%
Finance, insurance, real estate 9,400  3.0%
Professional, science, management services 15,900  5.0%
Administrative, support, waste services 7,700  2.4%
Educational services 31,300  9.8%
Healthcare, social assistance 47,400  14.8% 1,700   3,200  6.8% 10.4% $4,239,000   $1,324   $0.82 
Arts, entertainment, recreational services 5,000  1.6% 800   1,600  31.4% 5.1%
Accommodation 4,900  1.5% 800   1,500  30.5% 4.8%
Restaurants 18,100  5.7% 5,000   11,200  61.9% 36.4% $19,326,000   $1,724   $1.14 
Other services 12,200  3.8% 700   1,600  13.3% 5.3%
Public administration 41,600  13.0% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sector
For profit 196,100  61.5% 14,800   28,300  14.4% 91.7% $47,935,000   $1,695   $1.03 
Nonprofit 34,700  10.9% 1,200   2,500  7.3% 8.3% $3,206,000   $1,258   $0.82 
Government 88,200  27.7% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Family income category
Less than $25,000 27,200  8.5% 3,900   8,800  32.4% 28.5% $12,924,000   $1,469   $0.85 
$25,000– $49,999 47,200  14.8% 2,900   5,900  12.4% 19.0% $9,338,000   $1,593   $1.07 
$50,000– $74,999 53,900  16.9% 2,400   4,300  8.1% 14.1% $8,289,000   $1,910   $1.12 
$75,000– $99,999 39,000  12.2% 1,500   2,700  6.8% 8.7% $3,765,000   $1,411   $1.01 
$100,000– $149,999 69,000  21.6% 2,800   4,800  7.0% 15.7% $8,816,000   $1,825   $1.18 
$150,000 or more 71,500  22.4% 1,800   3,300  4.6% 10.7% $5,273,000   $1,594   $1.01 
NA 11,300  3.5% 600   1,000  9.1% 3.3% $2,736,000   $2,681   $0.86 
Tipped occupations
Not tipped 313,600  98.3% 15,400   25,600  8.1% 82.9% $40,304,000   $1,577   $0.97 
Tipped worker 5,400  1.7% 600   5,300  96.9% 17.1% $10,837,000   $2,056   $1.22 
Family income-to-poverty status
In Poverty 16,300  5.1% 4,100   6,600  40.2% 21.3% $11,603,000   $1,766   $1.03 
100–199% poverty 36,600  11.5% 3,700   8,100  22.0% 26.1% $11,889,000   $1,476   $0.88 
200–399% poverty 88,100  27.6% 4,300   8,400  9.6% 27.4% $14,728,000   $1,744   $1.09 
400%+ poverty 178,000  55.8% 3,800   7,800  4.4% 25.2% $12,921,000   $1,666   $1.06 
Children in households impacted by minimum wage increase Number of children   Number of children in households directly impacted by increase  Number of children in households indirectly impacted by increase Total number of children in households affected by increase  Share of children in households affected by increase
184,500   14,700   9,900   23,600  12.8%

Notes: Estimated effect of minimum wage increases through 2027. All values in 2023 dollars. Some results omitted due to low sample size (-). Government workers and agriculture, fishing, and mining workers are exempted from Alaska minimum wage (NA). AAPI stands for Asian American and Pacific Islander. AIAN stands for American Indian and Alaska Native. Some totals might not add up precisely due to rounding.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Minimum Wage Simulation Model; 20152019 5-year ACS data pinned to 2023 CPS wage distribution. Employment scaled to match 2023 CPS labor force size. For more details see Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer 2019. 

View the underlying data on epi.org.